Human Body Humans and Life Lifestyle

Mysteries of human reproduction

Mysteries of human reproduction

Although nothing is more natural than the reproduction in humans as in any other life form, does not mean it’s simple. Very basis of living matter, essential for the perpetuation of the species, reproduction is a process of bewildering complexity and as we deepen the study’s more, the becomes overwhelming. And if our species, in addition to “the usual” unknown cellular and molecular mechanisms of this phenomenon, there are a number of specific human enigma that human reproduction differ from that of many other mammals and make it, in many respects, a bizarre phenomenon. Here, explore a brand new book, some primate reproductive oddities, some of which are “exclusively” human species for which there is still no solid explanation, but assumptions.

Humans reproduction

 

The book that will appeal to guide us through the twists and turns of human reproduction, from an evolutionary biolgică and is called How We Do It: The Evolution and Future of Human Reproduction; its author, Robert Martin, is a noted American researcher specializing in the study of breeding primates – the mammalian order to which they belong and the tail monkeys and man. Robert Martin is a member of the Committee on Evolutionary Biology at the University of Chicago and responsible biological anthropology research in the Field Museum, in the same city.

40 years of studies on primate reproductive helped prof. Martin to understand the complexity of this process, to discern the particularities of the different species of primates and thus to understand in what respects are and what matters differs reproduction human species from other species more or less closely related to us. Here are some of the issues discussed in his book – surprising aspects related to the composition of the human reproductive system, reproductive physiology, pregnancy and childbirth – and convince us that man is unexpectedly similar to many other primates, but that does not always helps to know and understand their reproductive biology, which remains in many ways mysterious.

Why people are “wasting” sperm?

Here’s the first oddity: why, during life, a woman produces only a few hundred eggs, while a male produces sperm trillion? For each egg produced by a female in the menstrual cycle (period between two successive menstruation, which includes a series of changes that occur in the ovaries and uterus for possible pregnancy), the man who tried to fertilize do this “mission sending “hundreds of millions of sperm in each sex. A method of reproduction seems very expensive and inefficient! Why such a waste of sperm?

Short answer and sec is “not known.” Answer funny – a joke cited by the author in the book – is “because none of them stops to wonder which way to turn.” A response-hypothesis is that perhaps the best solution to this problem was simply organic to create a large egg to be a stationary target for a lot of sperm that are moving towards it.
Joke or not, the fact is we do not know why the development of such right things, and not only to us but to other species of primate and non-primate mammals even.

Lifestyle

Clash of Clans: A Powerhouse Mobile Game

Clash of Clans: A Powerhouse Mobile Game

 

In the past years, with an increase in the number of people who are being hooked with their smartphones, different mobile games have been introduced, each targeting a specific audience. Among others, one that has recently gained popularity is the Clash of Clans game. The latter has been one of the most notable success stories in mobile gaming in recent years as proven by the incredibly high downloads and the sky-high revenue generated by its creators. It is not unusual to find stories of players who have been addicted with the game, with many of them even spending a lot for their personal fulfillment from playing. If you have not yet given it a try, it is now time to have it downloaded on your mobile phones and see what the craze is all about. A word of warning, however! You may end up being addicted like the millions of other players from all over the globe.

 

Clash of clans hack

 

Clash of Clans game

While the Clash of Clans Hack has been first released in 2012, it did not gain instant popularity from a global perspective back then. It was first introduced on IOS platform and later on Android. In 2o13, it has been released by Google Play in the international market, which has signaled its unprecedented success up to this point. In this multiplayer game, you will be able to create your own community, provide an extensive training to your troops, and attack other players. As you fight with your opponents, you will be given certain rewards such as gold and elixirs. In the Clash of Clans game, you will also need to do some serious strategizing to ensure your victory and progress.

Reasons for its Popularity

 

While there are many other mobile games that have been introduced in the past, only a few of them can match the success of Clash of Clans. Gaming analysts have weighed on why this game is insanely popular all over the globe. One of the reasons asserted for the popularity of the Clash of Clans game is how it is well-polished. It is a carefully-formulated game, and hence, being able to positively influence the experience of its users. Also, unlike other games, it is not demanding in terms of the time required on your end to play. Even if you leave as there is something important you need to do, when you come back, you will return on the same point where you left. More so, the enormous popularity of the Clash of Clans game can also be attributed to being a free app, although you might end up paying a premium if you choose to progress quicker through the in-game purchases.

Human Body Humans and Life

If the appendix is useful, suffering from appendicitis?

If the appendix is useful, suffering from appendicitis?

However, why appendicitis is so common in industrialized societies? Scholars have advanced several decades ago an explanation, known as the “hygiene hypothesis”. It argues that people in companies with good hygienic conditions suffer more from allergies and autoimmune diseases because they (and hence their immune systems) were not challenged in everyday life as often parasitic and Mede other harmful organisms present in the surrounding. Therefore, when the immune system is caused, in the end, it reacts excessively.

“The immune system reacts excessively could lead to inflammation associated with appendicitis and could also lead to obstruction of the intestines that causes acute appendicitis,” says Parker. “So modern medicine and hygiene practices not only explains that we do not need the appendix in today’s society, but also the problems that we cause it,” concluded the doctor.

Research specialist at Duke University are not only providing evidence for Appendix. A study published in the journal Comptes Rendus 2013 Palevol analyzed 361 species of mammals and concluded that the appendix has evolved at least 32 different times among mammals, suggesting that it is unlikely that the appendix is useless (for in this case would not have evolved in many repeatedly).

Scientists have found that in most cases the appendix did not appear after a change in diet, so that Darwin’s theory does not apply to all animals. However, he was right where primates, for organ study confirmed that this occurred when our ancestors changed their diet.
Appendix How to save your life?

A study published in 2011 suggests that “useless body” could even save our life in certain situations. In this research, scientists have studied Clostridium difficile, one of the most dangerous nosocomial infections.

C. difficile is a bacterium that is the basis of gastrointestinal infections that cause diarrhea and colitis, being one of the leading causes of death from hospital-acquired infections. One of the most problematic aspects of the disease is that 25% of patients will experience recurrent disease, despite successful initial treatment.

Researchers led by James Grendell analyzed 254 patients who were infected with C. difficile, and they divided into two groups: those who had appendix removed, and those who had removed the body. Analysis of the data revealed an unexpected finding: those presenting a risk-free appendix four times more likely to suffer again from Clostridium difficile after initial treatment. Specifically, in patients with intact Appendix disease returned in 11% of cases, whereas among individuals with Appendix disease returned in 48% of cases.
Scientists believe that the appendix are more lymphocytes that combat C. difficile and other bacterial infections, so removing it makes the immune response is weaker, and intestine are more prone to repeated infection.

For this reason, the authors argue that removing the appendix could increase the risk of patients suffering from recurrent infections and potentially fatal. So not only appendix is not a “useless organ”, but may even save our lives.

Human Body Humans and Life Lifestyle

What purpose does Appendix

 

“Useless body” of our body is restored science. What purpose does Appendix

Appendix was long considered a “useless organ”, this tissue at the intersection with the thick intestine often inflamed and sometimes putting patients’ lives at risk. Many people believe that the appendix is of no avail, which is why people choose to undergo appendectomy, removing the organ “vestigial and useless” body without suffering, apparently, after this operation.

detail_appendix

 

Why is believed appendix is useless?

 

One of the first scientists who have speculated on the usefulness appendix was Charles Darwin. At that time, appendix was identified only among humans and other primates in the family Hominidae, and Darwin believed that the body was a remnant of the time when their ancestors ate leaves. Diet based on plants require a large cecum, hosting this segment of intestine bacteria needed to break down plant tissues. Later, Darwin believed, primate ancestors began to eat mostly fruits, which were easier to digest. No longer needed a large cecum, so it started to decrease over time, and today people cecum is small. Darwin believed that the appendix, which is next to the cecum, was in fact a former component of the cecum which was deformed as it is out. For this reason the Father ‘theory of natural selection “believed that appendix has no utility.

 

In recent years, however, the appendix was vindicated by scientists, several studies suggest that it is not far from an organ has no function

Scientists at Duke University Medical Center have launched the hypothesis that the beneficial bacteria in the appendix can withstand a severe case of diarrhea that leads to complete emptying of the bowels. The bacteria can come later in the Appendix to repopulate the intestines. “Even if there is no direct evidence, there are many circumstantial evidence suggesting that Appendix is where the good bacteria can live safe, undisturbed until they are needed,” said William Parker, professor of experimental surgery and one of the researchers who postulated the new hypothesis.

 

A very interesting thing is that in the Appendix are cells of the immune system. Researchers at Duke believe that these cells are present to protect the beneficial bacteria, not to the contrary.

 Appendix

Professor Parker has studied for over 10 years biofilm in the gut, a name given to a thin layer composed of microbes and immune cells that forms over the intestinal mucosa. “Our studies have shown that the immune system protects and nourishes the colonies of microbes living in the biofilm. By protecting these good microbes, prevent bad germs to settle. We also showed that the biofilm is most pronounced in the appendix, “explains Parker

The appendix can be demonstrated in situations where modern sanitary conditions are absent, explains Parker. “In countries without modern sanitation, disease causing severe diarrhea are endemic. Diarrhea entirely clear intestinal contents, including biofilm. After the bowels have been emptied, the good bacteria hidden in the appendix may return in the gut, “says the specialist. Professor Parker says that “in industrialized societies benefiting from a modern medical and sanitary practices, it is possible that this” reservation bacteria “is no longer necessary, which explains why removing the appendix in modern societies do not produce negative effects” .

Human Body Humans and Life Lifestyle

The brain can not know that was operated

The brain can not know that was operated

Brain Institute is a private clinic, hosted by Hospital Monza, but it’s not the usual one, because it works after some very specific principles. It’s basically the first private non-profit medical institution in Romania, which reinvests all available resources to improve patient care and medical practice as well as research and education.

Brain Institute medical decisions are not made by a single physician, as in the Romanian state, but by interdisciplinary teams, as in the civilized world. I mean, if a pituitary adenoma surgery is involved and an endocrinologist, if a malignant tumor are involved pathologists and oncologists, and so on.

 

Brain

 

But let me explain a little and what modern neurosurgery, minimally invasive, because it’s extremely important. Means operations with the hair on the head of the patient, small incisions, well placed, no bandages, no drains, shortened hospital stay, less postoperative pain, less scarring and less visible the often invisible to that is sub par. Basically, it cuts a small piece of bone and operates the “hole” of. At the end of the operation, the bone is put in place. No, it’s not a joke, I saw with my own eyes the patient is operated without a single cut hair, do not speak the stories. And I saw the patients operated by outdated methods, shaved head, 100 bandages, turbans and drain tubes with huge scars and winding deep grooves on the surface of the scalp, which they will carry with them for life.

 

Something about modern techniques, the latest used by Brain Institute:

 

Intravenous Neuroanestezia by target controlled infusion system. It is a special technique that allows management of anesthetic drugs not only based on weight, height, sex, age, and adjusted but the information came from a special sensor that collects and processes the brain waves indicating how the patient responds to anesthesia . Thus, it can be changed in real time the dose and rate of administration depending upon the requirements of the moment of the individual. A highly personalized anesthesia thus allowing rapid awakening at the end of surgery and neurological assessment done accurately without residual consequences of excessive sedation (feeling sick, vomiting, etc.) and risk of sequelae. I mean, yes, you can talk to the patient immediately after the operation, I answer, sleepy, but consistently to all questions. Nic even made jokes with Dr Stoica: “How are you, Nic, I heard you had surgery?” “Yes, yes, I heard on sources”. 🙂

Special procedures, such Awake Brain Surgery or surgery on the patient awake. This is an anesthetic technique that involves waking the patient during the operation, certain interventions are areas of the cerebral cortex that deals with speech, writing and movement. More specifically: When the tumor tissue resembles normal tissue of the brain, this technique does not help the surgeon to cut the normal tissue, leaving the patient with a life sequelae. It is gently awakened and explain where they are and when the operator, and is asked to work through speech or movement, as appropriate. The surgeon makes a detailed cortical mapping (a map, that is), tracing the contours of the tumor to healthy tissue and anesthesiologist talking to the patient, being very attentive to the smallest changes that occur in speech, understanding its movements; When such changes occur, the surgeon is off – means that an important area is reached and not bothered as it significant sequelae. Taking this technique to the extreme and wanting to prove its viability, a surgical team in the United States operated a famous violinist while he performed an entire concert. Three times … WOW! Incredible how far modern medicine has come, is not it?

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GPS neuronavigation or neurosurgeon

GPS neuronavigation or neurosurgeon

It is a computer that performs based on MRI, a 3D reconstruction of the patient’s head. With the resulting images, the surgeon (operating through a small incision, remember, so he split the patient’s head to see the whole brain) makes the correlation with the real situation on the operating table. Thus, you can see exactly where he is surgical instruments, as is to remove the tumor, as it is placed in relation to the major nerve centers and large vessels and so on. Still using neuronavigaţiei is established and where it will cut the bone, so that the surgeon can operate throughout the tumor through an incision as small.
Neuromonitorizare intra-operative (highlights various sensitive nerve structures present in the surgical field, the surgeon must accurately identify and protect); Microscope (working “through the keyhole”, ie with a small voucher, you need to increase and the light microscope, magnifying glasses or eye being exceeded); Neuro-endoscope (most often is used to operate the nose pituitary adenoma, because the endoscope can work with a single nostril discomfort to the patient only after the operation is a feeling of being cold, no pain, bleeding, plugging nasal lumbar puncture, etc.); Special instrumentation, micro-surgery.
In summary, the fundamental principle underlying modern neurosurgery, minimally invasive and animating team at Brain Institute is as follows: “The brain should know that was operated” (Dr. Harvey Cushing). By extension, any patient should not feel as if they have been operated, nor those around him (family, friends and colleagues) should not be labeled that. With the latest equipment, the most effective anesthesia and especially the experience and professionalism of doctors at the Brain Institute, a patient who had a tumor may go home on foot after an operation that can take tens of hours and a three-day hospitalization. And people who meet on the street will not know that three days ago, some neurosurgeons have walked through the brain.

And it brought something new to Romania Brain Institute. A website that contains all the answers you might need a patient. From resumes medical medical techniques used in operations (from the site I got the above information, but many more find the source and more detailed) from the presentation of partnerships with other specialties (oncology, ENT, endocrinology) phone number where you can make appointments, the hospital conditions prices. Most perfect transparency so that they can not. Removal of a brain tumor costs, for example, 13.000 RON (the equivalent of about 3,000 euros). Not much more than a bribe for an operation “old fashioned” in a state hospital, about half of what it cost to Euroclinic and very, very little compared to the technology used and the expertise of doctors. To give you an idea of the price of such operations in a clinic somewhere abroad reached 40,000 euros. Does anyone have any doubt that these people will not make money, but neurosurgery at the highest performance standards in the interest of the patient? 🙂

I beg you to give away this information to find out how many people they do not know who would be able to save their lives tomorrow. Brain Institute is truly something extremely valuable for Romania, a great-great step forward in the fight for life, where “struggle for life” is very far from being a metaphor (here I would have had a smiley with “bitter smile “).